IWW poster, 1916
With the anniversary of the start of the First World War looming, there is sure to be demand in public libraries for information to complete school assignments or otherwise to commemorate the events and in particular the soldiers who fought and died.
While it is fine to remember and honour the service of those who went to fight, it is even more important to remember, commemorate and celebrate those who refused to fight.
In Australia there were a range of political and social institutions who were opposed to the war and who jointly defeated government attempts to introduce conscription.
Below are listed a few sources to assist those working in public libraries to provide their users with a range of useful resources. It is only a very small sample, there are hundreds more sources for the enterprising librarian to find.
Australian Dictionary of Biography – Tom Barker – http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/barker-tom-5131
Australian Dictionary of Biography – Vida Goldstein – http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/goldstein-vida-jane-6418
Australian War Memorial – Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918 – Volume XI – Australia during the War (7th edition, 1941) – https://www.awm.gov.au/histories/first_world_war/AWMOHWW1/AIF/Vol11/
Australian Women’s Register – Women’s Peace Army – http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE0542b.htm
Bobbie Oliver, Peacemongers: Conscientious Objectors to Military Service in Australia, 1911-1945, ISBN: 9781863681841
eMelbourne – Anti-War and Peace Movements – http://www.emelbourne.net.au/biogs/EM00071b.htm
IWW – Tom Barker – http://www.iww.org/history/biography/TomBarker/1
John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library – WW1 & Anti-Conscription campaigns – http://john.curtin.edu.au/education/tlf/anti_conscription.html
Joy Damousi and Marilyn Lake, Eds., Gender and War : Australians at War in the Twentieth Century : Studies in Australian History, CUP, ISBN: 9780521457101
National Archives of Australia – Conscription referendums, 1916 and 1917 – Fact sheet 161 – http://www.naa.gov.au/collection/fact-sheets/fs161.aspx
National Film and Sound Archive – educational resources – World War 1 and the Conscription Referenda – http://dl.nfsa.gov.au/module/336/
National Library of Australia – TROVE – Direct Action (journal of the IWW) – http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/title/507
National Library of Australia – TROVE – Women’s Peace Army – http://trove.nla.gov.au/people/728075?c=people
National Library of Australia – TROVE Search “Conscientious Objector “(date range 1914-1919)
Queensland State Archives – Conscripted to serve – http://www.archives.qld.gov.au/Researchers/Exhibitions/QldFirsts/26-50/Pages/31.aspx
State Library of New South Wales – Recruitment and conscription – http://guides.sl.nsw.gov.au/content.php?pid=489033&sid=4348340
State Library of Victoria – Arguments over Conscription – http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/australia-wwi/home-wwi/arguments-over-conscription
Verity Burgmann, Revolutionary Industrial Unionism : The Industrial Workers of the World in Australia, CUP, ISBN: 9780521476980
Wikipedia – Frank Tudor – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Tudor
Wikipedia – War Precautions Act 1914 – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Precautions_Act_1914
Wikipedia – World War I conscription in Australia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I_conscription_in_Australia
Women’s Peace Army – Manifesto – http://www.marxists.org/history/australia/1916/woman-manifesto.htm
The war was destructive for Australia as a nation which lost not only around 60 000 of its young men, with many more thousands left wounded, deranged, shell-shocked and damaged in countless ways, but lost also a sense of itself as a confident, independent, global pioneer in creating an advanced democracy that drew the eyes of all the world to the new Commonwealth. Instead, Australia succumbed in the end to the demand for loyalty, the demonisation of reformers and the revitalisation of the forces of imperialism.
One hundred years on, Australia has seemingly become the militarist nation Higgins warned about in his essay ‘Australian ideals’. Rather than celebrate the world-first democratic achievements forged by women and men in the founding years of our nationhood, the years that made Australia distinctive and renowned, we are told that World War I, in which Australians fought for the British Empire, was the supreme creative event for the nation. – Marilyn Lake (http://honesthistory.net.au/wp/lake-marilyn-fractured-nation/)