WW1 for librarians

IWW poster, 1916

IWW poster, 1916

With the anniversary of the start of the First World War looming, there is sure to be demand in public libraries for information to complete school assignments or otherwise to commemorate the events and in particular the soldiers who fought and died.

While it is fine to remember and honour the service of those who went to fight, it is even more important to remember, commemorate and celebrate those who refused to fight.

In Australia there were a range of political and social institutions who were opposed to the war and who jointly defeated government attempts to introduce conscription.

Below are listed a few sources to assist those working in public libraries to provide their users with a range of useful resources. It is only a very small sample, there are hundreds more sources for the enterprising librarian to find.

Australian Dictionary of Biography  - Tom Barker – http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/barker-tom-5131

Australian Dictionary of Biography – Vida Goldstein – http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/goldstein-vida-jane-6418

Australian War Memorial – Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918 – Volume XI – Australia during the War (7th edition, 1941) – https://www.awm.gov.au/histories/first_world_war/AWMOHWW1/AIF/Vol11/

Australian Women’s Register – Women’s Peace Army – http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE0542b.htm

Bobbie Oliver, Peacemongers: Conscientious Objectors to Military Service in Australia, 1911-1945, ISBN:  9781863681841

eMelbourne – Anti-War and Peace Movements – http://www.emelbourne.net.au/biogs/EM00071b.htm

Honest History

IWW – Tom Barker – http://www.iww.org/history/biography/TomBarker/1

John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library - WW1 & Anti-Conscription campaigns – http://john.curtin.edu.au/education/tlf/anti_conscription.html

Joy Damousi and Marilyn Lake, Eds., Gender and War : Australians at War in the Twentieth Century : Studies in Australian History,  CUP, ISBN: 9780521457101

National Archives of Australia – Conscription referendums, 1916 and 1917 – Fact sheet 161 –  http://www.naa.gov.au/collection/fact-sheets/fs161.aspx

National Film and Sound Archive – educational resources – World War 1 and the Conscription Referenda – http://dl.nfsa.gov.au/module/336/

National Library of Australia – TROVE – Direct Action (journal of the IWW) – http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/title/507

National Library of Australia – TROVE – Women’s Peace Army –  http://trove.nla.gov.au/people/728075?c=people

National Library of Australia – TROVE Search “Conscientious Objector “(date range 1914-1919)

Queensland State Archives – Conscripted to serve – http://www.archives.qld.gov.au/Researchers/Exhibitions/QldFirsts/26-50/Pages/31.aspx

State Library of New South Wales – Recruitment and conscription – http://guides.sl.nsw.gov.au/content.php?pid=489033&sid=4348340

State Library of Victoria – Arguments over Conscription – http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/australia-wwi/home-wwi/arguments-over-conscription

Verity Burgmann, Revolutionary Industrial Unionism : The Industrial Workers of the World in Australia, CUP, ISBN: 9780521476980

Wikipedia – Frank Tudor – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Tudor

Wikipedia – War Precautions Act 1914 – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Precautions_Act_1914

Wikipedia – World War I conscription in Australia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I_conscription_in_Australia

Women’s Peace Army  – Manifesto – http://www.marxists.org/history/australia/1916/woman-manifesto.htm


The war was destructive for Australia as a nation which lost not only around 60 000 of its young men, with many more thousands left wounded, deranged, shell-shocked and damaged in countless ways, but lost also a sense of itself as a confident, independent, global pioneer in creating an advanced democracy that drew the eyes of all the world to the new Commonwealth. Instead, Australia succumbed in the end to the demand for loyalty, the demonisation of reformers and the revitalisation of the forces of imperialism.

One hundred years on, Australia has seemingly become the militarist nation Higgins warned about in his essay ‘Australian ideals’. Rather than celebrate the world-first democratic achievements forged by women and men in the founding years of our nationhood, the years that made Australia distinctive and renowned, we are told that World War I, in which Australians fought for the British Empire, was the supreme creative event for the nation. – Marilyn Lake (http://honesthistory.net.au/wp/lake-marilyn-fractured-nation/)

Hawke Review

Bit late because of holidays, but look the Hawke  FOI Review has come out, with a handy new practice guide.

The Review has sought to retain the free public access provisions in regards to application fees, personal information, and the initial 5 hours of processing.


We will look forward to see whether any new government implements the recommendations.


Federal Election 2013

During the last (2010) federal election, ALIA sent each of the parties a set of 10 questions seeking their views on library related issues, such as digitisation, funding, the NBN, school librarians etc. The parties responses are still available at: http://www.alia.org.au/election2010/
The Greens unsurprisingly responded well and agreed generally with ALIA’s policy directions. The Coalition agreed with many but said that economic imperatives prevented them from making any new spending commitments. The Labor response however, was laughable and seemed to have been written by a child intern. Even though, at that time, the ALP had a very good story to tell of building very many new school libraries and of developing fantastic open government initiatives its response was stunningly bad and one of the questions was even answered solely by recourse to plagiarism. See this earlier post.
This coming election, we will await again the library and information related policies from political parties. Hopefully this time, some of them will treat the questions and the sector with more interest.

Freedom of Information

Since the changes in Australian Freedom of Information legislation (see below) took effect on 1 November 2010 the number of FOI requests to Australian federal government agencies has grown overall by 48%. Different government agencies have been recording variant figures, with some agencies having requests up by over 70% while others figures are down or stable.

Prior to the change in legislation, FOI requests were on a continuing downward trend from an already low base rate, which is one reason the changes were brought in.
People were not able to access the information they wanted or needed, due to cost, excessive exemptions which limited access rights and a general culture of non-disclosure by agencies and their FOI staff.

FOI staff traditionally looked at FOI requests not with a view on how to support access and transparency, but to determine how to use the law not to disclose.

The change in legislation reversed this, it instructed FOI staff to assist people seeking information, it made initial requests free and it reduced the exemptions and made them have to be judged against a general public interest test, which determines that “access must generally be given to a conditionally exempt document  unless it would be contrary to the public interest”.

The change in legislation seemingly has worked and more people are able to access government information. Other facets of law or government policy changes are also assisting as agencies are also now directed to publish their corporate documents online, put their data sets up on data.gov.au, and move to open copyright licences.

But is information access being made to everyone?

The number of FOI requests by individuals is stable or declining (depending on who you ask). These individuals represent the “information poor” or the average person who generally does not have the knowledge or expertise to be able to know what information is available or to navigate the FOI process.

Where there is a significant rise in FOI usage is by the “information rich” that is people in the  news media, legal profession and academic arena who know of the legislative changes and are able to benefit from them.

All large media organisations (TV stations and newspapers) now employ staff whose job it is to produce and manage FOI requests. These staff on behalf of journalists, or it can be by the journalist themselves, regularly send requests to government agencies seeking access to information. There have been multiple instances of this source of information in major news stories of the last few months. This is a good and valid use of FOI disclosure in the public interest. However some FOI staff are unhappy due to the workload as many of the FOI requests are what are known as trawling exercises, whereby large amounts of information are requested because the journalist a) may not know exactly what they are looking for or, b) want to hide exactly what they are looking for within a greater information set.

Another user group is academics who know what information the government holds and now have a chance to access it to support their research.

The other large scale use is by lawyers. The ‘discovery process’ whereby information and documents are gathered for a case, used to be an expensive and long process. Now however, an FOI request to an agency which may have nothing to do with a case except via some regulatory action, or may actually be a party to a dispute can be used to find and organise and deliver large amounts of information. Some FOI staff are unhappy about this as they feel they are doing work for a commercial entity, which that entity should be paying for.

It is possible for government agencies to charge for handling some FOI requests and for providing some information, however this is set at a rate that would not actually cover costs. This low rate was designed so as not to put off potential applications from poorer individuals. In some cases also the fees can be waived outright. There is a growing demand from some FOI staff in Commonwealth agencies for changes to the legislation. They wish to be able to charge enhanced fees to commercial entities such as media and legal organisations. There are also some staff who do not agree with the new policy of disclosure and some government agencies that are also uncomfortable, for example, The Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet released in July its FOI Guidance Notes which although seemingly endorsing access, could also be seen as existing to show staff how best not to disclose.

What we are seeing therefore as we come to the end of the first full year of the new legislation is that those who know how to use the system and have prior knowledge are able to better access information.

These people and organisations, whether commercial or not, have every right to use the legislation and receive the services of the agency and their staff (as public servants) to meet their information needs. It would be a serious mistake to change the legislation due to the complaints of some staff who are being asked to work harder (it would be better to instruct agencies to employ more staff).

The major problem therefore is not that some people or organisations are using the system too liberally, but that information poor individuals are not using the system enough.

It is to be hoped that in the next year that the Australian Information Commissioner takes upon itself as a priority the education and promotion of the pathways to government information.

It is also hoped that the Commissioner ignores the attempts to to try to shut down the access we now grant, and supports expanding FOI services.

Freedom of Information Act 


(1)  The objects of this Act are to give the Australian community access to information held by the Government of the Commonwealth or the Government of Norfolk Island, by:

(a)  requiring agencies to publish the information; and

(b)  providing for a right of access to documents.

(2)  The Parliament intends, by these objects, to promote Australia’s representative democracy by contributing towards the following:

(a)  increasing public participation in Government processes, with a view to promoting better‑informed decision‑making;

(b)  increasing scrutiny, discussion, comment and review of the Government’s activities.

(3)  The Parliament also intends, by these objects, to increase recognition that information held by the Government is to be managed for public purposes, and is a national resource.

(4)  The Parliament also intends that functions and powers given by this Act are to be performed and exercised, as far as possible, to facilitate and promote public access to information, promptly and at the lowest reasonable cost.


FoI charges are going to be reviewed, with a view presumably to cut costs and levy fees on applicants: http://www.ministerhomeaffairs.gov.au/www/ministers/oconnor.nsf/Page/MediaReleases_2011_FourthQuarter_7October2011-FOIchargesregimetobereviewed

Hopefully it will be recognised that although transparency may cost more to manage, it is a cost that the information holders should undertake, and not information seekers.

Farewell to the NLA – hello to the new world

Today is the last day of work at the National Library for Kristy Fox an esteemed contributor to this blog. Kristy is moving to Melbourne to work at Ebook Library, a vendor providing ebooks to academic, research, government and corporate libraries. See their brochure.

Of the original founders of this blog who are still contributing, there is now only one still working at the National Library. This shows a number of things:

  • The National Library continues to lose its skilled library professionals, due to its management practices and lack of career advancement opportunities
  • Professional librarians continue to move outside of traditional library roles seeking improved opportunities and a chance to broaden their skills
  • The National Library continues to lead in big technology items like Trove, but its traditional services including reference, special collections, research, publishing, collection development, description and classification as well as its online services are more comparable to those of a small country museum than a national library

We do hope that the National Library finds its way, in the mean time, its former librarians wherever they work, will continue to better promote the core aims of librarianship elsewhere.

If you want to discuss ebook licensing, Kristy can be contacted at: kristy.fox@ebooks.com

IPS failure?

The Information Publication Scheme came into force on May 1 this year, its intention was to: “form the basis for a more open and transparent culture across government with agencies encouraged to take a proactive approach to publishing the information they hold, and to consider what they should be publishing over and above what they are obliged to publish.”

The scheme applies to all Australian federal government agencies, and most agencies have complied.
The three compliance issues are to publish details of agencies schemes on their websites, have a IPS logo link from the front page of their website to the scheme, and to begin to publish corporate documents not previously published.

Below is a chart that shows how the major Canberra based information, collecting or cultural agencies have done so far in compliance. While we know cultural agencies have been very badly affected by cost cutting, the apparent lack of compliance with government mandated transparency and openness is worrying.

More proof – publishers are scum (generally)

This blog has a few times lambasted publishers for closing bookshops, ripping off readers and authors, attacking libraries, opposing fair use legislation, increasing copyright restrictions, instituting anti-consumer DRM, and unfair regional licencing. Now with the revelations from News Corp (Murdoch’s company) we can now add to their credit that they are proven liars and criminals. For proof see their recent admission to extensive use of phone hacking to gather stories on their newspapers. Murdoch’s empire had managed to cover up most of their wrong doing by bribing the police, and thus escaped real scrutiny for a number of years, but happily this has changed and now they are going to have to pay dearly. It is too much to hope that this will be the end of Murdoch and his family, but it would be a boon for libraries if it were.


Since the rise in popularity of this blog, there have been occasions where things have gotten a little out of hand.
Therefore we are now (reluctantly) having to institute these etiquette guidelines (stolen from a sci-fi convention)

1. Do not ask for hugs or kisses.
Not only is this an invasion of bloggers personal space but it’s not fair if you get one and everyone else misses out. It is simply too draining for the bloggers to give them to everyone. Please do not think, “Oh it won’t hurt if I just ask, its only one person…” There are no exceptions for this rule. Be considerate!

2. No inappropriate touching of the bloggers whatsoever
e.g. grabbing them on the bottom etc. This is unacceptable on many levels and once again, anyone caught doing so will be removed.

3. Do not ask self-centred questions
Ask questions that everyone (including the blogger!) will find enjoyable, interesting and entertaining. Asking for hugs, telling stars we love them, giving gifts and getting into long personal stories etc is not acceptable in these kinds of blogs. It is, in fact, quite self-centered when you are in essence “representing” all of fandom to a blogger.

4. Please refrain from asking the bloggers questions about the following:
Sex, finances, politics, personal religious beliefs or personal relationships. These are very touchy and personal subjects and can make the bloggers uncomfortable. Also, should you ask a question and the blogger seems uncomfortable about it, or dodges the question, then please leave it alone. They do not have to discuss anything that they do not wish to.

5. Please do not ask the bloggers to remove their shirts or any other item of clothing. We know they are very pretty and look good shirtless but this is inappropriate.

6. Try to keep the questions as short and as clear as possible and speak clearly so as to not confuse the bloggers. Make sure that the question you ask is about something that everyone will enjoy hearing about. Make sure you don’t repeat questions. Think of something else or let someone else have a turn.

7. Please do not ask the bloggers for autographs and photographs outside the official autograph and photographs sessions as this puts them in a difficult position. They probably just want to have lunch, a chat or a rest without ‘working’.

Come Dine With Us (2) : a world gone mad

No bids have thus far arrived for the Library Lovers Day auction – see earlier post.

Apparently no-one is interested in paying >$10,000 to dine with a librarian – not even for the sake of charity.

It is a sick sick society we live in.

Help – from the government

cybersafety help button

The DBCDE has produced a help button that you can download to your computer/device. The button is mainly aimed at children and young people who feel under threat online, but it could be useful for everyone as a quick means of reporting illegal content.

It seems to be a variation on the UK’s ‘panic button’ developed by facebook and the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre.

When a user double-clicks on the downloaded cybersafety help button while connected to the internet, it will open the cybersafety help and advice page to provide assistance to:

  • talk to a counsellor about cyberbullying or anything else that is worrying or upsetting them
  • report cyberbullying, inappropriate or offensive online material, scams and fraud, or unwanted contact
  • learn how to stay safe online with tips and information on a range of cybersafety issues

It is to be commended that the government is putting tools into people’s hands to help them counter online threats and abuse. It is a shame that the previous government’s home filter system, which allowed users to choose to filter if they wanted is no longer supported. Giving people the choice and the tools to protect themsleves is in theory always a far better approach than direct blanket censorship.

Expressive Archives and OMEKA

I went to a talk last night by Bethany Nowviskie called Expressive Archives. It was a really great talk – basically looking at some of the cool things happening between the web and the humanities. She is the director of the Scholars Lab at the University of Virginia. She mentioned a great web publishing platform they built called OMEKA. I don’t know if you have heard of it but it sounded really exciting to me. It is built for small collection institutions to display their digitised material. It is open source and available for download from the website. And it also has a lot of great plug-ins… which make it really versatile. One of the coolest features is its ability to drag material in using persistent identifiers making it very straightforward for collection institutions like local libraries, historical societies and special interest groups.

Anyway – have a look at OMEKA and see what you think.

Here is a link to Bethany’s blog well worth a read!

Kristy Fox